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Golang-Beego Framework and its Applications

By :
4 minutes read

There are usually some concerns when implementing a new technology such as what would happen if we get stuck somewhere and end up wasting our time and effort. It’s possible that we’ll have to go back to the original solution. We faced similar issues a year ago but after long and in-depth research, we found a solution that was more secure and safe-Golang and its frameworks. The way it is documented is really helpful. However, we were quite certain that we would not find all the answers online which was a challenge we accepted in the spirit of Lailah Gifty Akita’s renowned adage, “THERE IS ALWAYS A SOLUTION TO EVERY CHALLENGING SITUATION.”

This blog mainly talks about Golang-Beego framework and its applications. We’ll be discussing how Golang is used in Web Development and why most of the developers shift from Python, Node, or other languages to Go.

Let’s understand the Golang framework in order to know how it works.

What is Golang?

First appearing in 2009, Golang (popularly known as Go) quickly gained popularity among developers, becoming a preferred language for more than 90% of users. Its ancestor languages are C and C++ programming languages which is quite evident by looking into its syntax and compiling features. 

Primarily used for backend development, Go has 4 other use cases- 

  1. Cloud & Network Services
  2. Command-line Interfaces (CLIs) 
  3. Web Development
  4. Development Operations & Site Reliability Engineering. 

Here are some of the main features of Golang that make this framework the preferred choice for developers:

1. Simplicity 

Go syntax is straightforward as shown here and its compiler can smell trouble and raise errors during the build process — that is before the program is run.

Go Syntax in Golang-Beego Framework

The flexibility, usability, and incredibly cool concept behind Go (how it handles native concurrency, garbage collection, and safety+speed) are some of the features that are quite useful for developers.

2. Speed

Built-in concurrency ( Goroutines and Channels ) is one of the main reasons for its high performance. Analyzing this stack overflow will allow us to estimate its speed.

“I may have implemented this incorrectly because the results do not make sense. I have a Go program that counts to 1000000000; it finishes in less than a second. On the other hand, I have a Python script; it finishes in a few minutes. Why is the Go version so much faster? Are they both counting up to 1000000000 or am I missing something?” 

If you’re still unsure about the speed, here’s a comparison between Go, Node JS, Java, and Python that will help in gaining more clarity about its usage:

My Device Specification:

Device name- LAPTOP-Q8U9LM8P

Processor- Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-10210U CPU @ 1.60GHz   2.10 GHz

Installed RAM- 16.0 GB (15.6 GB usable)

System type- 64-bit operating system, x64-based processor

N-body print:

Source Time To Count 

Go: 6.34   seconds

Python3: 545.25 seconds

GO

Output:

Factorial   Time To calculate factorial

10000       0.008 seconds

50000       0.506 seconds

100000      3.154 seconds

500000      82.394 seconds

1000000     284.445 seconds

NodeJS (Javascript )

Output:

Factorial   Time To calculate factorial

10000       0.113 seconds

50000       1.974 seconds

100000      22.730 seconds

500000      477.534 seconds 

1000000     1175.795 seconds 

Python

Output:

Factorial   Time To calculate factorial

10000       0.046 seconds

50000       1.187 seconds

100000      6.051 seconds

500000      388.607 seconds 

1000000     813.725 seconds 

JAVA

Output:

Factorial   Time To calculate factorial

10000       0.064 seconds

50000       1.607 seconds

100000      5.363 seconds

500000     141.076 seconds

1000000     585.868 seconds

3. Safety:

GARBAGE Collector:

Go prefers to allocate memory on the stack, so most memory allocations will end up there. This means that it has a stack per goroutine and when possible it will assign variables to this stack.

Golang mark and sweep garbage collector has two phases: Mark, and Sweep. First, it will mark all unused and used variables, then sweep unused ones.

The statistics and the description above suggest why one should work with Go. Golang framework that is best for creating APIs also accelerates and facilitates development.

Why do we use Beego Framework?

Be it Go or Beego, both are fantastic for developing high-performance REST APIs. 

Beego is a “battery included” framework, with built-in tools ( bee tool ), ORM, and libraries compared with other frameworks like Gin-gonic which is not a “battery included” type and contains most essential libraries and features not good for server-side features.

Beego uses a typical Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework which has turned out to be good for people (like us) who work on Python-Django before and Beego is quite similar.

Why do we use Beego Framework?

Conclusion: 

That’s how we started our application with Golang and Beego. We worked on PDF, Image handling with ImageMagick, AWS-SNS, AWS-SES SMTP, IVR calls, Fax, Digital signatures, Reports generation with ORM, and many more. And we haven’t found any blockage while working with third-party features like Twilio or AWS. It is really simple to write code on Golang as mentioned by their creators. There are certain challenges in using this framework but there are solutions as well. We really enjoyed it working on this framework. BEST OF LUCK for your upcoming Golang applications.

About the Author

Piyush Raj graduated from IIT Kharagpur in Chemical Dept. He started his career with ML and AI, and now works at Mantra Labs as a software developer. In his free time, he likes to explore new paths in the real world or on paper through traveling and painting.

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Implementing a Clean Architecture with Nest.JS

4 minutes read

This article is for enthusiasts who strive to write clean, scalable, and more importantly refactorable code. It will give an idea about how Nest.JS can help us write clean code and what underlying architecture it uses.

Implementing a clean architecture with Nest.JS will require us to first comprehend what this framework is and how it works.

What is Nest.JS?

Nest or Nest.JS is a framework for building efficient, scalable Node.js applications (server-side) built with TypeScript. It uses Express or Fastify and allows a level of abstraction to enable developers to use an ample amount of modules (third-party) within their code.

Let’s dig deeper into what is this clean architecture all about. 

Well, you all might have used or at least heard of MVC architecture. MVC stands for Model, View, Controller. The idea behind this is to separate our project structure into 3 different sections.

1. Model: It will contain the Object file which maps with Relation/Documents in the DB.

2. Controller: It is the request handler and is responsible for the business logic implementation and all the data manipulation.

3. View: This part will contain files that are concerned with the displaying of the data, either HTML files or some templating engine files.

To create a model, we need some kind of ORM/ODM tool/module/library to build it with. For instance, if you directly use the module, let’s say ‘sequelize’, and then use the same to implement login in your controller and make your core business logic dependent upon the ‘sequelize’. Now, down the line, let’s say after 10 years, there is a better tool in the market that you want to use, but as soon as you replace sequelize with it, you will have to change lots of lines of code to prevent it from breaking. Also, you’ll have to test all the features once again to check if it’s deployed successfully or not which may waste valuable time and resource as well. To overcome this challenge, we can use the last principle of SOLID which is the Dependency Inversion Principle, and a technique called dependency injection to avoid such a mess.

Still confused? Let me explain in detail.

So, what Dependency Inversion Principle says in simple words is, you create your core business logic and then build dependency around it. In other words, free your core logic and business rules from any kind of dependency and modify the outer layers in such a way that they are dependent on your core logic instead of your logic dependent on this. That’s what clean architecture is. It takes out the dependency from your core business logic and builds the system around it in such a way that they seem to be dependent on it rather than it being dependent on them.

Let’s try to understand this with the below diagram.

Source: Clean Architecture Cone 

You can see that we have divided our architecture into 4 layers:

1. Entities: At its core, entities are the models(Enterprise rules) that define your enterprise rules and tell what the application is about. This layer will hardly change over time and is usually abstract and not accessible directly. For eg., every application has a ‘user’. What all fields the user should store, their types, and relations with other entities will comprise an Entity.

2. Use cases: It tells us how can we implement the enterprise rules. Let’s take the example of the user again. Now we know what data to be operated upon, the use case tells us how to operate upon this data, like the user will have a password that needs to be encrypted, the user needs to be created, and the password can be changed at any given point of time, etc.

3. Controllers/Gateways: These are channels that help us to implement the use cases using external tools and libraries using dependency injection.

4. External Tools: All the tools and libraries we use to build our logic will come under this layer eg. ORM, Emailer, Encryption, etc.

The tools we use will be depending upon how we channel them to use cases and in turn, use cases will depend upon the entities which is the core of our business. This way we have inverted the dependency from outwards to inwards. That’s what the Dependency Inversion Principal of SOLID implies.

Okay, by now, you got the gist of Nest.JS and understood how clean architecture works. Now the question arises, how these two are related?  

Let’s try to understand what are the 3 building blocks of Nest.JS and what each of them does.

  1. Modules: Nest.JS is structured in such a way that we can treat each feature as a module. For eg., anything which is linked with the User such as models, controllers, DTOs, interfaces, etc., can be separated as a module. A module has a controller and a bunch of providers which are injectible functionalities like services, orm, emailer, etc.
  1. Controllers: Controllers in Nest.JS are interfaces between the network and your logic. They are used to handle requests and return responses to the client side of the application (for example, call to the API).
  1. Providers (Services): Providers are injectable services/functionalities which we can inject into controllers and other providers to provide flexibility and extra functionality. They abstract any form of complexity and logic.

To summarize,

  • We have controllers that act as interfaces (3rd layer of clean architecture)
  • We have providers which can be injected to provide functionality (4th layer of clean architecture: DB, Devices, etc.)
  • We can also create services and repositories to define our use case (2nd Layer)
  • We can define our entities using DB providers (1st Layer)

Conclusion:

Nest.JS is a powerful Node.JS framework and the most well-known typescript available today. Now that you’ve got the lowdown on this framework, you must be wondering if we can use it to build a project structure with a clean architecture. Well, the answer is -Yes! Absolutely. How? I’ll explain in the next series of this article. 

Till then, Stay tuned!

About the Author:

Junaid Bhat is currently working as a Tech Lead in Mantra Labs. He is a tech enthusiast striving to become a better engineer every day by following industry standards and aligned towards a more structured approach to problem-solving. 


Read our latest blog: Golang-Beego Framework and its Applications

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