10%

Try : Insurtech, Application Development

Edtech(5)

Events(31)

Interviews(10)

Life@mantra(10)

Logistics(1)

Strategy(14)

Testing(7)

Android(42)

Backend(28)

Dev Ops(2)

Enterprise Solution(20)

Frontend(28)

iOS(39)

Javascript(13)

AI in Insurance(25)

Insurtech(57)

Product Innovation(34)

Solutions(13)

Augmented Reality(7)

Customer Journey(7)

Design(6)

User Experience(21)

Artificial Intelligence(94)

Bitcoin(7)

Blockchain(14)

Cognitive Computing(7)

Computer Vision(6)

Data Science(13)

FinTech(41)

Intelligent Automation(25)

Machine Learning(43)

Natural Language Processing(10)

Does Smart Contracts Work for India Inc.?

The concept of ‘smart contract’ was introduced by Nick Szabo, an American cryptographer and computer scientist in 1994. But, only after blockchain became widespread in 2008, people understood practical applications of smart contracts. 

A smart contract is a computer protocol (set of rules) that digitally facilitates, verifies, and enforces the negotiations between two parties. It uses a distributed ledger system (blockchain) to store data on public databases and perform transactions without involving third parties. 

In this article, we’ll discuss the legal aspects of smart contracts in India. Before we do, here is a brief insight into how smart contracts work.

How Are Smart Contracts Executed?

The smart contract is a blockchain-based computer code. The contract terms are written in the code itself. Smart contracts interpret and verify every transaction against the terms and automatically executes them.

The key features of smart contracts are-

  1. Once the smart contract is released, no one including the creator (owner) can modify its terms.
  2. Physical documents are not required to initiate and complete the transaction.
  3. Although users can remain anonymous, the smart contract records the transaction details.
  4. Moderators can track market activity, but cannot regulate the transactions.
  5. Smart contract transactions are irreversible.

Smart Contract Real Estate Use Case: Propy

For instance, Propy is a smart contract-based cross-continental marketplace for buying and selling properties. It allows owners and brokers to list their properties and allows sellers to search and negotiate irrespective of location. The deal is closed through online transactions and each deed is recorded in the blockchain.

  

Viability of Smart Contracts in India?

Indian jurisdiction does not allow its financial institution to undertake bitcoin transactions. Since bitcoins demonstrate peer-to-peer transactional network, the fact that it is forbidden questions the viability of “Smart Contract” in India.

However, section 10 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 states – “All agreements are contracts if they are made by the free consent of parties competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and are not hereby expressly declared to be void.” 

Therefore, legally, two parties can sign a contract with or without third party involvement. By definition, the Indian Contract Act 1872 allows Smart Contracts.

Also, sections 5 and 10 of the Indian Information Technology Act, 2000 legally recognize digital signatures and considers a contract formed through electronic means as valid and enforceable. 

Despite Indian law allowing for digital contracts, Ponzi schemes facilitated by blockchain questions the viability of technology to safeguard people’s interests. Amit Bhardwaj’s $300 Mn cryptocurrency fraud calls for a strict ordinance for peer-to-peer contracts.

Since Smart Contracts do not involve a regulatory third party, fraud-control is a real concern. But, according to section 65B of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 digitally signed contracts are admissible in a court of law. Therefore, the government can intervene to resolve the disputes between participants. Also, sections 17, 18, and 19 of the Indian IT Act, 2000 allows supervision from national and foreign governing authorities.

Drop us a ‘hi’ at hello@mantralabsglobal.com to learn more about building industry-specific smart contracts and products.

Smart Contracts Insurance Use Case: Fizzy

AXA’s Fizzy is a smart contract-based travel insurance scheme for flight delays and cancellations. It ensures transparency as the claims displayed on the website are stored in a blockchain and no one can change the terms after purchase. 

User can buy the insurance online. When the flight is delayed or canceled, the public databases of plane status information automatically triggers the insurance holder’s compensation. The event confirmation executes and closes the claim process instantly.

Are There Business Benefits From Smart Contracts?

Almost all businesses (viz. Insurance, automobile, healthcare, supply chain, real estate, education, etc.) can benefit from smart contract development.

Transparency and data immutability are the competitive advantages that Smart Contracts bring to users on a global scale. With accurate record-keeping, companies can overcome fraud and business inconsistencies. Especially pay-per-use and micro-transactions can save paperwork and costs associated. For instance, insurers can manage micro insurances better through smart contracts than traditional models.

Cancel

Knowledge thats worth delivered in your inbox

8 Best Ways to Reduce Android App Size

5 minutes, 29 seconds read

With the increase in mobile storage spaces that have gone up to 256 GB, app size is also growing. App size is sure to grow as developers are adding new features, trying to meet customer needs, and also trying to support their apps on various screen sizes. Around 74% of the world uses Android, and 70% of users consider app size before installing them. Moreover, as humans are getting accustomed to instant gratification, they ponder on ways to download apps as they take up storage spaces. Despite the cloud support for photos, videos, and files, android users face issues, such as mobile hanging due to app size. As customer expectations are increasing, android app developers are considering other ways to reduce app size while still incorporating significant additional features and keeping in mind the customer experience.

Below are the 8 best ways to reduce android app size:

1. Use Android App Bundle to Reduce App Size

When generating the release version of your app, you can choose between APK and Android App Bundle.  The second option will make Google play to generate the APK with only those features a specific user need. 

Use Android App Bundle

App Bundle Vs APK

Android App Bundle

  • It is a publishing format that includes compiled code and resources of your app, and delays APK generation and signing to Google Play.
  • With Android App Bundles, the compressed download size restriction is 150 MB. The app bundle cannot be used with APK expansion files.
Android App Bundle
Important: In the second half of 2021, new apps will be required to publish with the Android App Bundle on Google Play. New apps larger than 150 MB must use either Play Feature Delivery or Play Asset Delivery.

How to build android app bundles?

To build app bundles, follow these steps:

  1. Download Android Studio 3.2 or higher—it’s the easiest way to add feature modules and build app bundles.
  2. Add support for Play Feature Delivery by including a base module, organizing code and resources for configuration APKs, and, optionally, adding feature modules.
  3. Build an Android App Bundle using Android Studio. You can also deploy your app to a connected device from an app bundle by modifying your run/debug configuration and selecting the option to deploy APK from app bundle. Keep in mind, using this option results in longer build times when compared to building and deploying only an APK.
  4. If you’re not using the IDE, you can instead build an app bundle from the command line.
  5. Test your Android App Bundle by using it to generate APKs that you deploy to a device.
  6. Enroll into app Play App Signing. Otherwise, you can’t upload your app bundle to the Play Console.
  7. Publish your app bundle to Google Play.

Please note: Android Package Kit – As per developer console, by the mid of 2021, developers won’t be able to upload apk on play store)

  • Android operating system uses APK which is the package file format for distribution and installation of mobile apps, games and middleware. APK is similar to other software packages such as APPX in Microsoft Windows or a Debian package in Debian -based operating systems.
  • Google Play requires that the compressed APK downloaded by the users should not exceed 100 MB.
  • The expansion files for your app are hosted by Google Play which serves them to the device at no cost to you. The expansion files are saved to the device’s shared storage location (the SD card or USB-mountable partition).

2. Use Proguard

Proguard is probably one of the most useful tools to reduce your APK size. It reduces the source code files to a minimum and can reduce the APK file size upto 90%.

  • Use it in all variants whenever using “Proguard”
  • Helps to avoid conflict at the of generate apk or bundle if will use in all the variants.
  • We cannot let ProGuard rename or remove any fields on these data classes, as they have to match the serialized format. It’s a safe bet to add a @Keep annotation on the whole class or a wildcard rule on all your models.

3. Use Android Size Analyzer Plugin

This Android Studio plugin will provide you recommendations to reduce the size of your application.

With the APK Analyzer, you can accomplish the following:

  • View the absolute and relative size of files in the APK, such as the DEX and Android resource files.
  • Understand the composition of DEX files.
  • Quickly view the final versions of files in the APK, such as the AndroidManifest.xml file.
  • Perform a side-by-side comparison of two APKs.

There are three ways to access the APK Analyzer when a project is open:

  • Drag an APK into the Editor window of Android Studio.
  • Switch to the Project perspective in the Project window and then double-click the APK in the default build/output/apks/ directory.
  • Select Build > Analyze APK in the menu bar and then select your APK.

More details at: Jetbrains

4. Optimize Your App’s Resources

Whether used or not, every resource takes up memory. It is therefore necessary to have only those resources that you need, and to use those in a memory efficient way. In other words, you should consider the resolution of the image before finalizing on it.

5. Optimize Libraries

As large libraries consume huge amounts of space, it is advisable to remove parts of it in case you do not need them and if it is permitted by the license of the library. Proguard can aid you in this process but it is not always able to remove large internal dependencies.

6. Use Vector Graphics Wherever Possible

They are sharp and do not consume much space as they rely on mathematical calculations and not on pixels that need to be saved. However, they cannot be used for photography.

7. Compress Your Images

By using tools such as pngcrush, you can reduce the file size of PNG images. It is advisable to do this images as they still look the same. 

8. Only Support Specific Densities

If only a small portion of users use a specific density, it might be better to let Android scale your other densities for them as it would reduce your APK size.


As mobile storage space is growing, people are installing a large number of apps to meet a wide range of needs. But as app size is increasing, people are continuing to struggle with storage issues. With provisions such as Proguard, one can compress the APK file size and optimize libraries easily. Compressing images and using vector graphs are also useful in reducing app size.

About the author: Anand Singh is Tech Lead at Mantra Labs. He is integral to the company’s Android-based projects and enterprise application development.

Further Reading:

Cancel

Knowledge thats worth delivered in your inbox

Loading More Posts ...
Go Top
bot

May i help you?

bot shadow

Our Website is
Best Experienced on
Chrome & Safari

safari icon