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[Part 2] Web Application Security Testing: Top 10 Risks & Solutions

By :
7 minutes, 29 seconds read

In the previous article, we discussed risks and web application security testing measures for 5 types of attacks-

  1. Injection
  2. Broken authentication and session management
  3. Cross-site scripting
  4. Indirect object security reference
  5. Security misconfiguration

Link – Part 1

Now let’s continue with the remaining 5 web application security threats.

6. Sensitive data exposure

Broken authentication and inefficient session management leads to sensitive data exposure. Examples of applications vulnerable to sensitive data exposure.

  • Data stored in plain text, such as passwords or credit card data 
  • Lack of HTTPS on authenticated pages
  • Hashed passwords with lack of salt, making the password easily cracked
  • Tokens disclosed in public source code
  • Browser header caching sensitive data

I would suggest going through the part 1 of this series for in-depth knowledge about this vulnerability.

7. Cross-site forgery

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) or session riding- attacks, an attacker forces a victim to make an inappropriate web request such as a fraudulent bank transaction. For example, an attacker tricks the victim client into calling a banking function in a vulnerable page that transfers money from the victim’s to the attacker’s account. The victim triggers the attack by following an attacker’s link or visiting an attacker’s page. The vulnerable server page doesn’t recheck the authenticity of the victim’s request and allows proceeding the transfer.

The following steps detail the anatomy of a CSRF attack:

  1. The attacker finds a functionality in a web application that is vulnerable to CSRF.
  2. Attacker builds a link invoking the vulnerable function and by passing the required parameters, executes the attack.
  3. The Attacker then waits until the victim client authenticates with the vulnerable web application.
  4. Attacker tricks the victim client into following the malicious link.
  5. Victim client sends a forged request to a vulnerable server.
  6. Vulnerable server allows and executes the forged request.

For example, the link might look like this when the payload is to transfer money from the victim’s to the attacker’s account:


The following link sends an email titled ‘Hello’ to johny@example.com – 


Basic test for cross-site request forgery

You can follow these test steps to test against CSRF bugs-

  1. Find a web application page that triggers/performs an action upon user request.
  2. Construct a page containing a link or redirect that sends a forged request to the application server. This link usually contains a tag such as an img or iframe with the source address pointing to the request.

<a href=”http://bank.com/transfer.do?acct=MARIA&amount=100000″>View my Pictures!</a>

<img src=”http://bank.com/transfer.do?acct=MARIA&amount=100000″ width=”1″ height=”1″ border=”0″>

  1. Note that the links above will generate a GET request. In order to test for POST requests you must create a page containing a form with the URL parameters passed as hidden input, and add a script to automatically submit the form:
 <form action=”http://bank.com/transfer.do” method=”post”>
     <input type=”hidden” name=”acct” value=”MARIA”>
     <input type=”hidden” name=”ammount” value=”100000″>
  1. Open an Internet browser and log in to the web application as a legitimate user.
  2. Open the page built in step 2 (follow the link if necessary).
  3. Confirm if the request was successful.
  4. Repeat test case for every application create/update/delete/mail action.

Expected result: the test fails if the application trusts and processes the forged request.

Also, attackers can manipulate cookies.

Another example,

Suppose, we allow users to post images on our forum. What if one of our users post this image?

<img src= “http://foo.com/logout”>

This is not really an image. But, it will force the target URL to be retrieved by any random user who happens to browse that page — using their browser credentials! From the webserver’s perspective, there is no difference whatsoever between a real user initiated browser request and the above image URL retrieval.

If our logout page was a simple HTTP GET that requires no confirmation, every user who visits that page would be immediately logged out.

Consider these examples of cross-site forgery: CSRF token leakage through Google Analytics, deleting account and erasing imported contacts, change any user ZONE, Add optional two factor mobile number

8. Missing function level access control

If the authentication check in sensitive request handlers is insufficient or non-existent, the vulnerability is Missing Function Level Access Control.

How to test for missing function level access control?

The best way to find out if an application fails to properly restrict function level access is to verify every application function-

  1. Does the UI show navigation to unauthorized functions?
  2. Are server side authentication or authorization checks missing?
  3. Are server side checks solely rely on information provided by the attacker?

Using a proxy, browse the application with a privileged role. Then revisit restricted pages using a less privileged role. If the server responses are alike, the My Organization application is probably vulnerable.

In one potential scenario an attacker simply forces the browser to target URLs. Consider the following (non-My Organisation) URLs which should require authentication. One also requires admin rights to access the “admin_getappInfo” page.



If a non-authentic user (attacker) gets access to either page, then it means — unauthorized access was allowed. This flaw may lead the attacker to access more unprotected admin pages.

Example of missing function level access control atack – Delete Credit Cards from any Twitter Account.

9. Shellshock and Heartbleed attacks


It is a remote command execution vulnerability in Bash. A series of random characters, () { :; }; , confuses Bash because it doesn’t know what to do with them, so by default, it executes the code after it.

More on — manually exploiting shellshock vulnerability

Tools for checking Shellshock

Through command line:

To determine if your Linux or Unix system is vulnerable, type the following in the command line-

 env x='() { :;}; echo vulnerable’ bash -c “echo this is a test”
If the system is vulnerable, the output will be:
 this is a test
 An unaffected (or patched) system will output:
 bash: warning: x: ignoring function definition attempt
 bash: error importing function definition for `x’
           this is a test

Online tools – 

  1. Penetration testing tools
  2. Shellshock bash vulnerability test tool


It is a critical bug in OpenSSL’s implementation of the TLS/DTLS heartbeat extension. It allows attackers to read portions of the affected server’s memory, potentially revealing users data, that the server did not intend to reveal.

An attacker can trick OpenSSL into allocating a 64KB buffer, copy more bytes than is necessary into the buffer, send that buffer back, and thus leak the contents of the victim’s memory, 64KB at a time.

Web application security testing tools for heartbleed attack

  1. defribulator v1.16 : Command→ python ssltest.py example.com (ssltest.py file is available with me)
  2. Online tool: Filippo
  3. For android, you can download Bluebox open SSL scanner

Also read – Heartbleed bug FAQs, Bugs and solutions

How to prevent heartbleed attack?

  • Upgrade the OpenSSL version to 1.0.1g
  • Request revocation of the current SSL certificate
  • Regenerate your private key
  • Request and replace the SSL certificate

Examples of Heartbleed security attacks: information disclosure on Concrete5, port 1433, server returning more data

10. Unvalidated redirects and forwards

Unvalidated redirect vulnerabilities occur when an attacker is able to redirect a user to an untrusted site when the user visits a link located on a trusted website. This vulnerability is also often called Open Redirect.

It is possible when a web application accepts untrusted input that could cause the web application to redirect the request to a URL contained within untrusted input. By modifying untrusted URL input to a malicious site, an attacker may successfully launch a phishing scam and steal user credentials.

How to test unvalidated redirects and forwards?

Spider the site to see if it generates any redirects (HTTP response codes 300-307, typically 302). Look at the parameters supplied prior to the redirect to see if they appear to be a target URL or a piece of such a URL. If so, change the URL target and observe whether the site redirects to the new target.

Web application security testing: preventing unvalidated redirects

  1. Simply avoid using redirects and forwards.
  2. If at all you’re using redirects/forwards, do not allow the url as user input for the destination. In this case, you should have a method to validate the URL.
  3. If you  cannot avoid user input, ensure that the supplied value is valid, appropriate for the application, and is authorized for the user.
  4. Map any such destination input to a value, rather than the actual URL or portion of the URL. Ensure that server side code translates this value to the target URL.
  5. Sanitize input by creating a list of trusted URL’s (lists of hosts or a regex).
  6. Force all redirects to first go through a page notifying users that they are going off of your site, and have them click a link to confirm.

Consider these examples: open redirect, open redirect in bulk edit

So, this was all about prevailing risks and web application security testing measures to prevent your website from attackers. For further queries & doubts, feel free to write to hello@mantralabsglobal.com

About the author: Rijin Raj is a Senior Software Engineer-QA at Mantra Labs, Bangalore. He is a seasoned tester and backbone of the organization with non-compromising attention to details.



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Enhancing digital patient experience with healthcare chatbots

5 minutes read

Chatbots are fast emerging at the forefront of user engagement across industries. In 2021, healthcare is undoubtedly being touted as one of the most important industries due to the noticeable surge in demand amid the pandemic and its subsequent waves. The Global Healthcare Chatbots Market is expected to exceed over US$ 314.63 Million by 2024 at a CAGR of 20.58%.

Chatbots are being seen as those with high potential to revolutionize healthcare. They act as the perfect support system to agents on the floor by providing the first-step resolution to the customer, in terms of understanding intent and need, boost efficiency, and also improve the accuracy of symptom detection and ailment identification, preventive care, feedback procedures, claim filing and processing and more.

At the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, digital tools in healthcare, most commonly chatbots, rose to the forefront of healthcare solutions. Providence St. Joseph Health, Mass General Brigham, Care Health Insurance (formerly Religare), and several other notable names built and rolled out artificial intelligence-based chatbots to help with diagnostics at the first stage before a human-human virtual contact, especially while differentiating between possible COVID-19 cases and other ailments. The CDC also hosts an AI-driven chatbot on its website to help screen for coronavirus infections. Similarly, the World Health Organization (WHO) partnered with a messaging app named Ratuken Viber, to develop an interactive chatbot for accurate information about COVID-19 in multiple languages. This allowed WHO to reach up to 1 billion people located anywhere in the world, at any time of the day, in their respective native languages.

For Care Health Insurance, Mantra Labs deployed their Conversational AI Chatbot with AR-based virtual support, called Hitee, trained to converse in multiple languages. This led to 10X interactions over the previous basic chatbot; 5X more conversions through Vanilla Web Experience; Drop-in Customer Queries over Voice Support by 20% among other benefits.

Artificial Intelligence’s role in the healthcare industry has been growing strength by strength over the years. According to the global tech market advisory firm ABI Research, AI spending in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries is expected to increase from $463 million in 2019 to more than $2 billion over the next 5 years, healthtechmagazine.net has reported. 

Speaking of key features available on a healthcare chatbot, Anonymity; Monitoring; Personalization; collecting Physical vitals (including oxygenation, heart rhythm, body temperature) via mobile sensors; monitoring patient behavior via facial recognition; Real-time interaction; and Scalability, feature top of the list. 

However, while covering the wide gamut of a healthcare bot’s capabilities, it is trained on the following factors to come in handy on a business or human-need basis. Read on: 

Remote, Virtual Consults 

Chatbots were seen surging exponentially in the year 2016, however, the year 2020 and onwards brought back the possibility of adding on to healthcare bot capabilities as people continued to stay home amid the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns. Chatbots work as the frontline customer support for Quick Symptom Assessment where the intent is understood and a patient’s queries are answered, including connection with an agent for follow-up service, Booking an Appointment with doctors, and more. 

Mental Health Therapy

Even though anxiety, depression, and other mental health-related disorders and their subsequent awareness have been the talk around the world, even before the pandemic hit, the pandemic year, once again could be attributed to increased use of bots to seek support or a conversation to work through their anxiety and more amid trying times. The popular apps, Woebot and Wysa, both gained popularity and recognition during the previous months as a go-to Wellness Advisor. 

An AI Wellness Advisor can also take the form of a chatbot that sends regular reminders on meal and water consumption timings, nutrition charts including requisite consultation with nutritionists, lifestyle advice, and more. 

Patient Health Monitoring via wearables 

Wearable technologies like wearable heart monitors, Bluetooth-enabled scales, glucose monitors, skin patches, shoes, belts, or maternity care trackers promise to redefine assessment of health behaviors in a non-invasive manner and helps acquire, transmit, process, and store patient data, thereby making it a breeze for clinicians to retrieve it as and when they need it.

Remote patient monitoring devices also enable patients to share updates on their vitals and their environment from the convenience and comfort of home, a feature that’s gained higher popularity amid the pandemic.

A healthcare chatbot for healthcare has the capability to check existing insurance coverage, help file claims and track the status of claims. 

What’s in store for the future of chatbots in Healthcare? 

The three main areas where healthcare chatbots can be particularly useful include timely health diagnostics, patient engagement outside medical facilities, and mental health care. 

According to Gartner, conversational AI will supersede cloud and mobile as the most important imperative for the next ten years. 

“For AI to succeed in healthcare over the long-term, consumer comfort and confidence should be front and center. Leveraging AI behind the scenes or in supporting roles could collectively ease us into understanding its value without risking alienation,” reads a May 2021 Forbes article titled, The Doctor Is In: Three Predictions For The Future Of AI In Healthcare. 


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